|Title||Chromatin remodeling complexes: ATP-dependent machines in action.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2005|
|Authors||Johnson CN, Adkins NL, Georgel P|
|Journal||Biochem. Cell Biol.|
|Keywords||Adenosine Triphosphatases, Adenosine Triphosphate, Animals, Chromatin, Gene Expression Regulation, genetics/metabolism, Humans, metabolism, Nucleosomes, Transcription Factors|
Since the initial characterization of chromatin remodeling as an ATP-dependent process, many studies have given us insight into how nucleosome-remodeling complexes can affect various nuclear functions. However, the multistep DNA-histone remodeling process has not been completely elucidated. Although new studies are published on a nearly weekly basis, the nature and roles of interactions of the individual SWI/SNF- and ISWI-based remodeling complexes and DNA, core histones, and other chromatin-associated proteins are not fully understood. In addition, the potential changes associated with ATP recruitment and its subsequent hydrolysis have not been fully characterized. This review explores possible mechanisms by which chromatin-remodeling complexes are recruited to specific loci, use ATP hydrolysis to achieve actual remodeling through disruption of DNA-histone interactions, and are released from their chromatin template. We propose possible roles for ATP hydrolysis in a chromatin-release/target-scanning process that offer an alternative to or complement the often overlooked function of delivering the energy required for sliding or dislodging specific subsets of core histones.