|Title||Influences of ssDNA-RecA Filament Length on the Fidelity of Homologous Recombination|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2021|
|Authors||Danilowicz C, Vietorisz E, Godoy-Carter V, Prévost C, Prentiss M|
|Journal||Journal of Molecular Biology|
|Keywords||biased random walk, D-loop turnover, Double-strand break repair, genomic rearrangement, multiple reversible intermediates|
Chromosomal double-strand breaks can be accurately repaired by homologous recombination, but genomic rearrangement can result if the repair joins different copies of a repeated sequence. Rearrangement can be advantageous or fatal. During repair, a broken double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) is digested by the RecBCD complex from the 5 Ä end, leaving a sequence gap that separates two 3Ä single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) tails. RecA binds to the 3 Ä tails forming helical nucleoprotein filaments.A three-strand intermediate is formed when a RecA-bound ssDNA with L nucleotides invades a homologous region of dsDNA and forms a heteroduplex product with a length ≤ L bp. The homology dependent stability of the heteroduplex determines how rapidly and accurately homologous recombination repairs double-strand breaks. If the heteroduplex is sufficiently sequence matched, repair progresses to irreversible DNA synthesis. Otherwise, the heteroduplex should rapidly reverse. In this work, we present in vitro measurements of the L dependent stability of heteroduplex products formed by filaments with 90 ≤ L ≤ 420 nt, which is within the range observed in vivo. We find that without ATP hydrolysis, products are irreversible when L > 50 nt. In contrast, with ATP hydrolysis when L < 160 nt, products reverse in < 30 seconds; however, with ATP hydrolysis when L >= 320 nt, some products reverse in < 30 seconds, while others last thousands of seconds. We consider why these two different filament length regimes show such distinct behaviors. We propose that the experimental results combined with theoretical insights suggest that filaments with 250 ≤ L ≤ 8500 nt optimize DSB repair.